Basic Notes and Points in Personality Theories
- Lay Theories vs. scientific theories
- Scientific theories all have a hypothesis, testable, falsifiable.
- Systematic, practical, comprehensive, application, replicate results
- Lay: Anecdotal evidence, blanket statement, own experience, stereo type
- Consistent pattern of behavior
- Psychological viewpoint: different theoretical beliefs, behave, think, feel. Research and theories to back it up along with traits and characteristics,
- Conversational Viewpoint: Value judgment, subjective, surface perceptions, no facts or study more of an opinion.
- Behavior is more consistent than not. Best prediction of future behavior is past behavior. More likely to repeat previous behaviors.
- Personality Characteristics tend to be more consistent than not consistent over time
- Goals for personality theorists: Observation is that is scientific, theory that is systematic, theory that is testable, theory that is comprehensive. Applications: from theory to practice.
- Defining Personality: Personality addresses three issues that are difficult to reconcile: Human universals, individual’s differences, and individual uniqueness. Behave, think, and feel.
- Enduring- consistent across time. Distinctive- features that differentiate people from one another. Contribute to- factors that casually influence and thus at least partly explain, an individual’s tendencies. Feeling, thinking, and behaving- all aspects of persons. (What causes problems??)
- STRUCTURE vs. PROCESS
- Stable enduring aspects of personality
- Qualities that endure from day to day and from year to year
- The building blocks of personality theory
- Comparable to concepts such as atoms and molecules in physics.
- Units of analysis: different theories use different units of analysis to analyze personality structure.
- Popular units of analysis: Traits/ Types
- Hierarchy- certain parts are influenced by other parts
- Growth and Development
- Genetic determinants
- Genetic factors contribute strongly to personality and individual differences.
- Scientific advances enable the personality psychologist to pinpoint specific paths of influence.
- Culture, social class, family, and peers. (environmental determinants)
- Internal and External Determinants of behavior
- Theories differ in the level of Importance given you internal and external determinants
- Virtually all personality psychologists today acknowledge that is necessary tot consider both external and internal of human action.
- Skinner- External
- Freud- internal
- Each theory will have its own relationship with the awareness of unconsciousness and their own influence of the past, present, and future on behavior.
- STRUCTURE vs. PROCESS
PSYCH/504 Class Notes 11/2012 ; University of Phoenix