Scientific Study of Personality

November 7th, 2012

Scientific Study of Personality

Researchers use a number of different methods to study personality. Three of the most commonly used methods are case studies, correlational designs, and experimental designs. Defining personality can be a difficult task, but psychologists have developed their own definition that can help define personality as it relates to the entire field of psychology. Many of the theories are developed and modified through ongoing research which is why the process of critically evaluating research studies on personality is huge. Each method to define and study personality differs as it provides specific information to include advantages and disadvantages to each method.

There are many different ways to define personality and many people use the meaning in different ways. According to the book Personality: Theory and Research, “Personality addresses three issues: human universals, individual differences, and individual uniqueness” (Cervone & Pervin, 2010, p.4 ). This can create a variety of definitions just from this sentence. Most psychologists refer to personality on a larger scale by looking at specific patterns of how an individual behaves, thinks, and feels (Cervone & Pervin, 2010).  Professionals also look at certain characteristics such as being introverted/extroverted and by understanding this portion, it can help the psychologist on how the individual may react in situations and more on the psychological impacts on his or her personality. Many experiences can impact a personality whether it is family influence, social influence, or the friends of an individual.

The five W’s come to mind when thinking about personality: what, where, when how, and why. With obtaining this information from the client, the psychologist or other professional is able to understand the dominating factors of an individual’s personality. On a larger scale, this can also help determine precise motivation’s for one’s actions that can also help understand personality.  If a personality changes this can also help the professional to why and if it was for a brief period of time depending on the motivational factor. One’s personality structure is also important to review as it will help understand ones motives, behavior, development, and why someone is resistant to change (Cervone & Pervin, 2010).

Since personality can be difficult to define, it can also be difficult to measure. The data of a personality assessment can vary depending on the person. It is important to look at data from different sources to see what relates and what differs. When looking and evaluating the data, it is also important to assess the reliability and validity of the assessment and responses. There are three general approaches to personality research: case studies and clinical research, personality questionnaires and correlational research, and laboratory studies and experimental research (Cervone & Pervin, 2010).  Each approach to understanding and defining personality has similarities and differences as well as advantages and disadvantages. It is crucial to know which method will help based on a case by case scenario.

The first method is case studies and clinical research. Some clinicians feel that this is the best method to truly dive into one’s personality and be able dissect any fragment. Many times this method is used when treating an individual and or developing personality theories.  First and foremost the professional treats their patient and can come back later on to help develop detailed theories. Like any other method, this has its advantages and disadvantages. The case studies and research can accomplish many of the goals outlined in other approaches. This approach can create new knowledge, test a hypothesis, and potentially solve problems. When using this method the researcher/clinician can conduct the study while avoiding issues with statistics and other issues that are found within empirical approaches (Schwartz, Cieciuch, & Vecchione, October, 2012). A disadvantage of this method is that the professional can rely too much on his or her interpretations of the results. This is where the reliability and validity factor come into play. An advantage of this process would be that the lab cannot crate anything artificial and that the professional is able to study the individual in full detail, leading to a more comprehensive and reliable method (Schwartz, Cieciuch, & Vecchione, October, 2012).

The next method of approach to personality is personality questionnaires and correlational research. When case studies and in-depth research is unavailable for an individual, this is a desirable method. This is used also to understand human nature and the choices an individual selects can determine many components of his or her personality. A disadvantage of this method is that it can be sometimes viewed as unreliable. The individual could take the test in an environment where they feel uncomfortable or when the individual is having a bad day. The subject could answer questions based on their current mood versus their norm reaction. An advantage of this process is that there are many results that can help understand a personality. This process is known mainly as a strategy versus a particular tool to measure personality (Cervone & Pervin, 2010). This process helps understand the variable and its surroundings. Most have taken some type of personality test when applying for a job. This also helps employers correlate if the person of interest is suited for the position based on the assessment. A disadvantage of this process is that the individual is not studied in detail and the reliability can be skewed (Cervone & Pervin, 2010).

Experimental research is another method used and is also referred to as laboratory studies. This is an environment in which the professional is able to use a controlled environment. The professional is able to see what parts of the experiment affect some variables and if they were manipulated (Cervone & Pervin, 2010). Being able to manipulate specific variables and record fata objectively is an advantage of this process. With this method some things cannot be measure or manipulated in the laboratory and the disadvantage is that it can create a false situation that actually confines the amount of findings.

Researchers use a number of different methods to study personality. Three of the most commonly used methods are case studies, correlational designs, and experimental designs. Each method to define and study personality differs as it provides specific information to include advantages and disadvantages to each method. Clinical research encompasses a complete and comprehensive study of an individual. Correlational research measures specific variables and tries to understand how each variable relates to one another. Experimental research conducts research on manipulation of specific variables and finds the outcome (McCrae, July, 2011). Professionals and clinicians all use different methods depending on the end result and what he or she is looking to accomplish. Sometimes the result is not the most important but the research strategy associated with the result.

References

Cervone, D., & Pervin, L. A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research (11th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

McCrae, R. R. (July, 2011). Personality Theories for the 21st Century. Teaching of Psychology, 38(1), 209-214. doi:10.1177/0098628311411785

Schwartz, S. H., Cieciuch, J., & Vecchione, M. (October, 2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663-688. doi:10.1037/a0029393

Introduction to Psychological Testing

September 12th, 2011

Introduction to Psychological Testing Paper

In psychology, tests and measurements are extremely important. In psychology, tests must be deigned to be valid and reliable. In order for a test or measurement to be accurate, one must specifying the problem, observe the event, form a hypothesis and test the theory and or hypothesis. Afterwards, one must formulate his or her theory and then test the theory that which created. In order to do so, the psychologist must determine the why and what behind the test (Kosslyn & Rosenberg, 2006). In order to understand this method, one must define the word “test” in a more definitive way versus what all individuals consider to be the meaning. Test can be defined as a way to measure reliability, performance, and or quality prior to put the idea into practice or releasing the specifics mainstream (Kosslyn & Rosenberg, 2006 p.40).

There are several different types of tests for many different reasons. However, in psychology, the tests are in many different categories and are used in countless ways. According to the book, Psychological Testing. A Practical Introduction,  there are five major categories of testing. Mental ability, achievement, personality, interests and attitudes, and neuropsychological tests (Hogan, 2007).  Mental ability tests can measure one’s cognitive abilities in all ways. An example of a mental ability test is the SAT test that students take to test his or her accomplishments for college life (Hogan, 2007).  Most state and similar standardized tests would be considered part of this category.

Achievement tests are geared toward a specific topic or area in which one has a particular skill set. Examples of an achievement test range anywhere from a drivers license test to a real estate agent obtaining his or her license to sell homes. Personality tests are typically tests that are not as valid or reliable depending on the test. Most people are familiar with the DISC assessment and the Myers Briggs approach.  Personality tests can be objective depending on the mood one is in when he or she takes the test. These tests are used to find if one has depression, how well he or she works with others, how one can perceive to be under stress, and or what type he or she is.

When taking or developing a test, one must determine if the test being measured or administered is reliable and or can be valid. When creating a test, many conduct case studies in which they cannot assume that his or her findings can appear or relate to all subjects. For example, testing 30 people of the same gender and race and applying that result to an entire county. This would be unreliable and not valid. Some tests can help provide an in-depth understanding of a certain measurement and or situation. These advantages and disadvantages are used for research to develop the next set of testing.

In regards to being reliable and valid, many people say that they do not believe personality tests because the state of mind he or she was in when they decided to take the test. A reason people can feel this way is the state of emotion of when the test was taken. For example, one could take the DISC assessment which many employers use, on a stressful day. His or her results could show that they are a dominant personality, on a more relaxed day, he or she could result in the complete opposite of being intuitive and compliant. This is just one perfect example of how important reliability and validity are in the field of psychology.

Not all data can be considered reliable, but at least it is consistent. If one has a reliable set of measurements, the test can be repeated. Validity on the other hand means that the measurement is legitimate and it can provide  what it is suppose to be providing.  The concepts of reliability and validity are constantly affecting the field of psychology. Different types of testing that can be used in the field are anything from single subject, group administered, attitude and personality scales. Certain tests that can be used in the field are achievement, mental ability, attitude and personality, and neuropsychological tests. Techniques of scientific research are constantly being revamped and the field of psychology is ever evolving (Kosslyn & Rosenberg, 2006).

References

Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological Testing. A Practical Introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Kosslyn, S. M., & Rosenberg, R. (2006). Psychology in Context (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Peasron Education Inc.

Workplace Attitude Survey

September 26th, 2011

Attitude Survey

The Employee Satisfaction and Motivation Survey can relate to many fields within many departments of a specific company and his or her needs. The purpose of this survey is to determine the needs and satisfaction of a company’s employees. This survey will also help uncover the motivations of why the employee continues to work there and how the employee feels consistently. This survey will also help the employer’s HR departments and leadership teams by knowing what to start, stop, and continue doing. This survey will help paint the picture of why the employees are wanting to stay or leave the company.

Steps taken in making this survey were specific to human motivations and the human self-actualization processes. For one to be self-actualized, he or she must be at the pin point of the period thus having food, shelter, love and belonging, as well as self-esteem. Knowing that you’re employees are feeling self-actualized will give the employer a better picture as to his or her employees and how they feel. Making sure that relevance of this survey will be valid in almost any company was a challenge. An important factor was keeping it as general as possible with giving the survey a few questions to lessen the generality. For example, the department and job title will help the employer know why he or she is answering in a fashion based upon their title or department. Knowing the intent and use for the survey in the making process was crucial. What questions in the survey could be skewed and not relevant? What questions when developing the survey would make the results more valid and reliable? These are questions that were thought of when creating the Motivation and Satisfaction Survey. The different variety of questions was also an important step, should the 1-10 scale, multiple choice, short answer, or other methods be use? The different questions give the survey a more humanistic approach.

How to structure and design the survey was not as hard as the brainstorming and steps to create the survey. Knowing the target audience and the results process was easier in designing the survey. Choosing the right questions in regards to what the survey is asking, and how to structure this with the right message being brought to the table.  By switching up the survey with different methods of questioning, gives the employee a better way to answer the questions. If the survey had the option “doesn’t apply to me,” or “not sure,” the employer administering the test could not use the answers and would not be able to count that towards the larger group of answers. This was a determining factor from the beginning, otherwise 50% or more could select that option as they did not feel comfortable answering the question at hand.

When administering the Employee Motivation and Satisfaction Survey, all employees of all levels, in every department should be surveyed. This gives a more generic approach in knowing one’s culture at his or her company. By knowing the culture of the company, the employer will have a better idea of its peoples morale level. Administering this test to all departments could have amazing results. For example, if all employees in the department of customer service tell the employer in the survey that he or she had never received a pay raise or promotion, that indicate they do not like their work, this could be a large potential for a company to investigate. Questions like, why do my customer service reps feel this way? Possibly because they have not received any incentives and or recognition. Another example would be if the employee enjoys his or her work and is completely satisfied, this may come from the training department which is another spectacle as the employee’s in training usually want to be there. Being able to interpret as an employer, how your employees are doing and how they are feeling will give you a better analysis on what needs to be done within. Employee engagement and recognition have an opportunity if all feel unsatisfied in certain areas.

The Employee Satisfaction and Motivation Survey can relate to many fields within many departments of a specific company and his or her needs. This survey can be administered to any employee, but shall be released to the entire company/region/arena so the results will be accurate. The purpose of this survey is to determine the needs and satisfaction of a company’s employees. This survey will also help uncover the motivations of why the employee continues to work there and how the employee feels consistently. This survey will also help the employer’s HR departments and leadership teams by knowing what to start, stop, and continue doing. By administering this survey, you as the employer realize that things should change and or stay the same in regards to recognition, engagement, promotions, satisfaction, and benefits being offered.

 

Below is an attached copy of the Employee Satisfaction and Motivation Survey:

 Employee Satisfaction and Motivation Survey

What is the nature of your department and what is your job title?

 

How long have you been with the company?

 

Please indicate how much you like your current role.

I dislike it very much                                                              I enjoy it very much

1          2          3          4          5          6          7          8          9          10

Have you always enjoyed this type of work?

Yes / No / Somewhat

Have you ever done this type of work before, either for pay or not?

Yes / No

When was your last pay raise and or promotion?

Less than 1 year ago / More than 1 year ago / Never received one

Are you satisfied with our benefits package?       Yes / No

 

IF YES, indicate how much it influences your decision to stay with your company. IF NO, indicate how much it would influence your decision to stay if another job opportunity presented itself.

Very little                                                                                        Very much

1          2          3          4          5          6          7          8          9          10

When was the last time you received recognition or appreciation? (award, publicly, gift, email, etc.)

Less than 6 months ago / More than 6 months ago / Never

 

How well do your supervisor and upper leadership communicate the reasons for doing things within your department and or your tem?

Very poorly                                                                                        Very well

1          2          3          4          5          6          7          8          9          10

Do you participate in any community service/involvement activities within the company’s volunteer initiatives?

 

Yes/ No

 

Thank you for your time! Please feel free to use the space below to write any additional comments pertaining to your motivation at work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Psychological Testing

October 10th, 2011

1. What are at least two ethical issues associated with psychological testing?  What impact do these issues have on the field of psychological testing?

Ethical issues in psychological testing are extremely important to understand. One ethical issue is the right to privacy. If an individual is being tested by a professional, he or she must know that their information is to be protected. That is why there is a patient/confidentiality agreement unless there is harm to oneself or others brought into the equation. Another ethical issue in psychological testing is informed consent. The individual being tested and or treated must be aware and fully understand the process. The individual needs to know what the test is for and how the results will be used. These issues have a huge impact on the field, if professionals did as they pleased and did not follow a code of ethics than the entire field and testing would become irrelevant and unreliable. The right to privacy and informed consent are the two biggest issues in my opinion as they have so many loop holes and many issues may arise if not completed properly. Having your information protected and making sure that the results are used for proper information is not only an ethical concern but could become a situation with the law if not done properly.

2. What are at least two legal issues associated with psychological testing?  How do these issues affect the field of psychological testing?

One legal issue that can arise from psychological testing is one done by employers. If employers are giving prospective or current employees a “personality test” or “skills and abilities test,” these could come up with certain results. Resulting in mental capacity. If the test results show that one has a certain mental disorder, the company cannot discriminate if the potential employee can move up or be hired. This falls under the ADA rule. Results showing disorders like depressive or schizophrenic and having the company use that against the candidate is extremely illegal. Another legal issue that can arise is privacy. If the subject feels that the professional is not using his or her results properly or sharing with others can come into the field of privacy laws. Each state and test has their own law associated with it. If one is unhappy or doesn’t understand, that person could make a privacy claim. These issues affect the field because professionals could lose their licenses to practice and even worse end up incarcerated.  As professionals, there is a code of conduct, ethics, and laws they must follow, if not the consequences will be rendered necessary.


3. Which court case do you feel has had the largest impact on the field of psychological testing?  Why?

I cannot think of one specific case that has the largest impact, however the few I think that had the largest impact were those of Ted Bundy, Charles Manson, and Ed Gein. All three were serial killers. Charles Manson was a cult leader and brain washer along with a murderer. He helped us determine how some people act and how his followers act, and why they follow. Ted Bundy was antisocial and highly intelligent. Most could not grasp how an intelligent, well off man could be a serial killer. Ed Gein was not just a murderer, but disfigured the bodies, piece by piece. I feel that these 3 cases were highly important as each one has fooled people. Charles Manson led people to believe outrageous beliefs causing his followers to kill. Bundy was believed to be an intelligent well off individual that would never commit a crime. Gein was a quiet individual and no one thought he was capable of what he did. These all are important in psychology as we are wanting to know the what and why behind motivations and actions in others.

The Case of Alix

October 31st, 2011

The Case of Alix

“Persons with somatoform disorders, like those with the factitious disorder, manifest complaints and symptoms of apparent physical illness for which there are not demonstrable organic findings to support a physical diagnosis” (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009 pg. 76).  Somatoform disorders have five major subcategories of somatization disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, psychogenic pain disorder, and hypochondriasis (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009).  Women more frequently suffer from this disorder than men, and one case in point is the case of Alix, also known as the Empress Alexandra Fedorovna.  Born Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice. Alix was the Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and led a fairytale life, until the death of her sister, and mother when she was six.  From that point forward Alix’s sunny disposition dramatically changed to cold and distant.

In 1894 Alix would marry Nicholas II of Russia. In 1896, upon Nicholas’ crowning, she became the Express Alexandra Fedorovna and so began the beginning of the well-known Romonov family.  There was immense pressure for Alexandra to produce a son to be heir to the throne.  Four daughters were born before their son Alexis was born, only to be plagued by hemophilia.  The slightest bump or fall caused Alexis great pain and on a couple of occasions almost killed him.  When these events occurred Alexandra would not leave his side.  “After the crisis, she would collapse, lying on a bed or couch for weeks, moving only in a wheelchair” (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009, p.79).  She began developing episodes of hyperventilation, anxiety and fatigue together with physical symptoms of headaches and nausea.  She also continued to suffer from sciatica which she has experienced since childhood (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009).  In 1917, in the midst of a political revolution, Nicholas II, Alexandra, and their children were exiled to Siberia, and in 1918 they were brutally executed (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009).

Factors Involved
According to the DSM-IV-TR, there must be a history of physical complaints before a disorder can be diagnosed. These symptoms must take place over the course of seven years and must have presented before the age of 30. In Alix’s case, her condition would qualify for a diagnosis of undifferentiated Somatoform disorder. Alix experienced many physical symptoms that could be explained through any medical condition; her symptoms were unrelenting throughout her life. Alix’s mother’s death caused her psychological distress and her illness was influenced by her environment which enclosed these traumatic experiences. Alix also grieved for her young son Alexis, who suffered from a hemorrhage because of the hemophilia.  Hemophilia is rare condition in which the inflicted suffers from a blood-clotting deficiency.

Alix felt very guilty because she believed she caused his condition (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009). Alix also experienced intermittent sciatica, a severe pain in her back and legs that she had been experiencing since childhood.  Alix also experienced episodes in which she would hyperventilate, anxiety episodes, and periodic episodes of fatigue. She also occasionally experienced headaches and nausea. Alix believed that most of her symptoms were due to an enlarged heart and weak blood vessels that she may have inherited. She endured a significant amount of stress after the engagement, and marriage because of Alix’s German heritage the Russian people rejected her and there was intense pressure on her to bear a son. These irrational expectations on behalf of the Russians were pursued by a discontent ahead of acknowledging Alexis’ hemophilia. Thus her entire life would be exemplified by Alexis’s illness that was significant to both physical and emotional energy (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009).

Interventions

An intervention for somatoform disorder is using cognitive-behavioral therapy. The reason cognitive-behavioral therapy is a great intervention of this disorder is because there are not medical findings of a person having any medical illnesses when they are complaining of the pain that is within their body. It is explained (Landlaw, 2006), that somatoform can be analyzed in the process of both responding and operant conditioning.  Since the pain that is “caused” by the disorder, and this is caused by the person responding to the painful experiences, cognitive-behavioral therapy appears to be the best route for treatment.  This is the best route because once the history and assessment is completed with the patient finding the correct treatment can then be chosen.  Individual or group therapy seems to be the best choice of therapy for persons with this disorder. This is one of the best interventions because it will begin to show the patient why he or she is feeling the body pain and in what ways he or she may react to painful experiences without causing themselves pain.  The patient, in a way, is causing his or her pain by responding to life in that way that causes this disorder.

Although cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of somatoform disorders are known to be the most effective treatment, other approaches have proven to be successful as well.  Another intervention that has had success in treating this disorder is the family therapy approach (Schade, Torres, & Beyebach, 2011).  Family members can have a significant impact in an individual’s life both negatively and positively.  In non-western cultures, there is more value in the family system rather than the individual (Edwards, Stern, Clarke, Ivbijaro, & Kasney, 2010).  With this in mind, family therapy treatments can potentially be very successful in treating cases of somatoform disorder similar to that of Alix. For those individual’s suffering from the disorder, it is important to include the family members not only to help the individual themselves, but to help the family system as a whole (Edwards et al., 2010).  In recent studies it has been made known that individuals with a somatoform disorder “report higher levels of family conflict and lower levels of family cohesion” (Edwards et al., 2010, pg. 215, para. 5).  This family conflict is believed to be the reason for the “attention seeking behavior” in the patient (Edwards et al., 2010).  In using family therapy, all members of the family are involved in the sessions.

In the therapy sessions, the therapists will help the family members to better understand the link between the psychological processes and the physical processes of the disorder (Edwards et al., 2010).  This understanding can help reduce the tension and conflict within the family; therefore, helping to reduce the behaviors and physical symptoms of the individual (Edwards et al., 2010)

Within the Case of Alix, she has shown that she has a somatoform disorder. Alix has developed this disorder over a period of time, hence being able to use the DSM-IV-TR as a reference in regard to diagnosing. With the death of her sister, mother, pressure to bear a son, this has caused her to have several symptoms. These symptoms include sciatica, anxiety/fatigue episodes, and stress. Both physical and emotional symptoms. There are not only biological factors involved but also psychological and social factors as well. The cognitive-behavioral approach and family systems approach would be appropriate in the field of clinical psychology, due to the success rates and nature of each approach that is used.

 

 

References

Edwards, T. M., Stern, A., Clarke, D. D., Ivbijaro, G., & Kasney, L. (2010). The treatment of patients with medically unexplained symptoms in primary care: a review of the literature. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 7(4), 209-221. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Landlaw, K., Tazaki, M. February 18, 2006.  Behavioural mechanisms and cognitive-behavioural interventions of somatoform disorders. Website:         http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16451883

Meyer, R.G., Chapman, L.K., & Weaver, C.M. (2009). Case studies in abnormal behavior (8th      ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education/Allyn & Bacon

Schade, N., Torres, P., & Beyebach, M. (2011). Cost-efficiency of a brief family intervention for somatoform patients in primary care. Families, Systems, & Health, 29(3), 197-205. doi:10.1037/a0024563

 

 

Explain the relationship between learning and memory: March 14th, 2010

Memory and learning go hand and hand with one another. One’s memory is like a storage unit where everything one has learned is kept secure but easily unlocked to remember the material. Whereas learning, is the ability to filter through new information and is learned through one’s experiences and knowledge obtained through those experiences.  Without learning and memory together, it would become incredibly hard to function on a day to day basis. For example, we would not recognize our family, home, or place of work. We might also forget how to do a simple thing like tie our own shoe.

When it comes to relating learning and memory to the brain, both can possibly set up new prototypes of electrical movements in routes of several thousands of neurons. For instance, in order for one to create and update their long term memory, new synapses and or dendrites could be created if the neuron’s structure changes. Making it more critical that they work together. Memory can be created through several different experiences. Classical conditioning is a perfect example in which it is a form of learning with a neural stimulus and something of neural significance. (Wickens, 2005).

Learning has a most significant impact on the brain. When most are young they learn how to eat, get dressed, etc. It is our memory in which we can store this information to keep and teach us how to live our lives efficiently and so called politically correct. However, there can be traumatic experiences that we hold in our memory hindering one from doing a specific task due to those haunting thoughts. For example, if a women was raped, she might become a sex addict or completely become celibate because of the horrifying experience. For her, she learned that men are a certain way and her memory will not let her forget. Learning and memory both affected that woman. There is no learning without memory.

References

Wickens, A. (2005). Foundations of Biopsychology (2nd ed.). : Prentice Hall, Inc. A Pearson Education Company.

Learning Disorders: March 15th, 2010

Objective: What are some (at least 4) examples of learning and or memory disorders? Which disorder do you think is most prevalent?

Learning disabilities can hinder most of achieving their highest potential. Learning disabilities are caused by a different brain structure and the difference is how the brain processes the information. Learning disorders may affect one’s ability to speak, read, write, and or compute basic math. There are several different types of learning disorders, for example, there is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Dysgraphia. Most typically know ADHD which is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in which inattentiveness and over activity is present.

Dyslexia is a developmental reading disability in which it results to the inability to process graphic symbols. (dyslexia.2003). Dyscalculia is a learning disorder in which one has a hard time with mathematics and the inability to understand new concepts and possibly simple math. Dysgraphia is another learning disorder that involves trouble with expressing thoughts in writing and usually relates to poor handwriting and trouble with spacing words.

I believe that all the disorders are extremely prevalent, however I believe that ADHD is the most prevalent.  ADHD seems to be the most occurring and accepted disorder that the economy is structurally sound with. Whereas the others are just as important but not as popular. ADHD is the most diagnosed disorder in children which to me makes it the most prevalent. (Mattox, MSW & Harder, MSW, PhD, 2007). This disorder makes it hard for children to pay attention in school and slowly let grades slip. I think that this is definitely something we as a country need to pay attention to. However I also believe that ADHD is also overly diagnosed. This is a disorder that affects everything not just with learning. ADHD will affect social, academic, and emotional capabilities. (Mattox, MSW & Harder, MSW, PhD, 2007). ADHD is definitely something that will affect many Americans and hopefully we will have learned to cope and have ways of helping others with ADHD.

In conclusion, Learning disorders may affect one’s ability to speak, read, write, and or compute basic math. There are several different types of learning disorders, for example, there is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Dysgraphia. ADHD and Dyslexia I believe are the most prevalent. due to both being commonly accepted and ADHD is the most occurring in children.

 References

Mattox, MSW, R., & Harder, MSW, PhD, J. (2007, April). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Diverse Populations. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal24(2), 196.

dyslexia. (2003). In Webster’s New World™ Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/webstermed/dyslexia